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(旧版)急性膵炎診療ガイドライン2010

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第VIII章  急性膵炎の治療

 


引用文献


2~5. 輸液・経鼻胃管・薬物療法・栄養療法
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12) Jakobs R, Adamek MU, von Bubnoff AC, et al. Buprenorphine or procaine for pain relief in acute pancreatitis. A
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14) Peiro AM, Martinez J, Martinez E, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of metamizole versus morphine for acute pancreatitis pain. Pancreatology 2008; 8: 25-29.(治療レベル2b)
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16) Sainio V, Kemppainen E, Puolakkainen P, et al. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. Lancet 1995; 346: 663-667.(治療レベル1b)
17) Delcenserie R, Yzet T, Ducroix JP. Prophylactic antibiotics in treatment of severe acute alcoholic pancreatitis. Pancreas 1996; 13: 198-201.(治療レベル1b)
18) Schwarz M, Isenmann R, Meyer H, et al. Antibiotic use in necrotizing pancreatitis. Results of a controlled study. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1997; 122: 356-361.(治療レベル1b)
19) Nordback I, Sand J, Saaristo R, et al. Early treatment with antibiotics reduces the need for surgery in acute necrotizing pancreatitis-a single-center randomized study. J Gastrointest Surg 2001; 5: 113-118.(治療レベル2b)
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21) Dellinger EP, Tellado JM, Soto NE, et al. Early antibiotic treatment for severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Surg 2007; 245: 674-683.(治療レベル1b)
22) Golub R, Siddiqi F, Pohl D. Role of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: A meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 1998; 2: 496-503.(治療レベル1a)
23) Sharma VK, Howden CW. Prophylactic antibiotic administration reduces sepsis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a meta-analysis. Pancreas 2001; 22: 28-31.(治療レベル1a)
24) Villatoro E, Larvin M, Bassi C. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst 19 Rev 2003; CD002941.(治療レベル1a)
25) Villatoro E, Bassi C, Larvin M. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst 4 Rev 2006; CD002941.(治療レベル1a)
26) Bai Y, Gao J, Zou D, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics cannot reduce infected pancreatic necrosis and mortality in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 104-110.(治療レベル1a)
27) de Vries AC, Besselink MGH, Buskens E, et al. Randomized controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in severe acute pancreatitis: Relationship between methodological quality and outcome. Pancreatology 2007; 7: 531-538.(治療レベル1a)
28) Craig RM, Dordal E, Myles L. The use of ampicillin in acute pancreatitis. Ann Intern Med 1975; 83: 831-832.(治療レベル2b)
29) Finch WT, Sawyers JL, Schenker S. A prospective study to determine the efficacy of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1976; 183: 667-671.(治療レベル1b)
30) Howes R, Zuidema GD, Cameron JL. Evaluation of prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. J Surg Res 1975; 18: 197-200.(治療レベル1b)
31) Buchler M, Malfertheiner P, Friess H, et al. Human pancreatic tissue concentration of bactericidal antibiotics. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 1902-1908.(治療レベル2b)
32) Bertazzoni ME, Benini A, Muner A, et al. Pefloxacin penetration into human necrotic pancreatic tissue. J Antimicrob Chemother 1996; 38: 237-243.(治療レベル2b)
33) Manes G, Rabitti PG, Menchise A, et al. Prophylaxis with meropenem of septic complications in acute pancreatitis: a randomized, controlled trial versus imipenem. Pancreas 2003; 27: e79-e83.(治療レベル1b)
34) Manes G, Uomo I, Menchise A, et al. Timing of antibiotic prophylaxis in acute pancreatitis: a controlled randomized study with meropenem. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 1348-1353.(治療レベル1b)
35) Isenmann R, Runzi M, Kron M, et al. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 997-1004.(治療レベル1b)
36) Garg PK, Khanna S, Bohidar NP, et al. Incidence, spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial infections among patients with acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 1055-1059.(治療レベル3b)
37) Grewe M, Tsiotos GG, Luque de-Leon E, et al. Fungal infection in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg 1999; 188: 408-414.(治療レベル2b)
38) Maravi-Poma E, Gener J, Alvarez-Lerma F, et al. Early antibiotic treatment(prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29: 1974-1980.(治療レベル1b)
39) Eggimann P, Jamdar S, Siriwardena AK. Pro/con debate: Antifungal prophylaxis is important to prevent fungal infection in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. Crit Care 2006; 10: 229.(治療レベル2a)
40) Shanmugam N, Isenmann R, Barkin JS, et al. Pancreatic fungal infection. Pancreas 2003; 27: 133-138.(治療レベル3a)
41) He YM, Lv XS, Ai ZL, et al. Prevention and therapy of fungal infection in severe acute pancreatitis: A prospective clinical study. World J Gastroenterol 2003; 9: 2619-2621.(治療レベル2b)
42) De Waele JJ, Vogelaers D, Blot S, et al. Fungal infections in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and the use of prophylactic therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37: 208-213.(治療レベル4)
43) Skyring A, Singer A, Tornya P. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with trasylol: report of a controlled therapeutic trial. Br Med J 1965; 5462: 627-629.(治療レベル1b)
44) Baden H, Jordal K, Lund F, et al. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of Trasylol. Preliminary results in acute pancreatitis and in prophylaxis against postoperative pancreatitis. Acta Chir Scand Suppl 1967; 378: 97-102.(治療レベル1b)
45) Imrie CW, Benjamin IS, Ferguson JC, et al. A single-centre double-blind trial of Trasylol therapy in primary acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1978; 65: 337-341.(治療レベル1b)
46) Yang CY, Chang-Chien CS, Liaw YF. Controlled trial of protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate(FOY) in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 1987; 2: 698-700.(治療レベル1b)
47) Valderrama R, Perez-Mateo M, Navarro S, et al. Multicenter double-blind trial of gabexate mesilate(FOY) in unselected patients with acute pancreatitis. Digestion 1992; 51: 65-70.(治療レベル1b)
48) Buchler M, Malfertheiner P, Uhl W, et al. Gabexate mesilate in human acute pancreatitis. German Pancreatitis Study Group. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 1165-1170.(治療レベル1b)
49) Dervenis C, Johnson CD, Bassi C, et al. Diagnosis, objective assessment of severity, and management of acute pancreatitis. Santorini Consensus Conference report. Int J Pancreatol 1999; 25: 195-210.(治療レベル1a)
50) Chen HM, Chen JC, Hwang TL, et al. Prospective and randomized study of gabexate mesilate for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with organ dysfunction. Hepatogastroenterology 2000; 47: 1147-1150.(治療レベル1b)
51) Freise J, Melzer P, Schmidt FW, et al. Gabexate mesilate in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Results of a Hannover multicenter double-blind study with 50 patients. Z Gastroenterol 1986; 24: 200-211.(治療レベル1b)
52) Pederzoli P, Cavallini G, Falconi M, et al. Gabexate mesilate vs aprotinin in human acute pancreatitis(GA.ME.P.A.) . A prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study. Int J Pancreatol 1993; 14: 117-124.(治療レベル1b)
53) Andriulli A, Leandro G, Clemente R, et al. Meta-analysis of somatostatin, octreotide and gabexate mesilate in the therapy of acute pancreatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 237-245.(治療レベル1a)
54) Goebell H. Multicenter double-blind study of gabexate mesilate(FOY) given intravenously in low dose in acute pancreatitis(Abstr). Digestion 1988; 40: 73.(治療レベル1b)
55) Trapnell JE, Rigby CC, Talbot CH, et al. A controlled trial of Trasylol in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1974; 61: 177-182.(治療レベル1b)
56) Bachrach WH, Schild PD. A double-blind study of Trasylol in the treatment of pancreatitis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1968; 146: 580-592.(治療レベル1b)
57) Seta T, Noguchi Y, Shimada T, et al. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with protease inhibitors: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 1287-1293.(治療レベル1a)
58) Pezzilli R, Miglioli M. Multicentre comparative study of two schedules of gabexate mesilate in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Italian Acute Pancreatitis Study Group. Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 49-57.(治療レベル1b)
59) 竹内正, 建部高明, 佐藤寿雄, 他. FUT-175(メシル酸ナファムスタット) の膵炎に対する臨床効果-多施設二重盲検法によるメシル酸ガベキサートとの比較. 消化器科1984; 1: 255-270.(治療レベル2b)
60) 本庄一夫, 石井兼央, 佐藤寿雄, 他. 膵炎に対するMR-20 の臨床効果-多施設二重盲検法による検討. 医学のあゆみ 1984; 129: 70-83.(治療レベル2b)
61) Sillero C, Perez-Mateo M, Vazquez N, et al. Controlled trial of cimetidine in acute pancreatitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1981; 21: 17-21.(治療レベル1b)
62) Meshkinpour H, Molinari MD, Gardner L, et al. Cimetidine in the treatment of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. A randomized, double-blind study. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 687-690.(治療レベル1b)
63) Broe PJ, Zinner MJ, Cameron JL. A clinical trial of cimetidine in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1982; 154: 13-16.(治療レベル1b)
64) Morimoto T, Noguchi Y, Sakai T, et al. Acute pancreatitis and the role of histamine-2 receptor antagonists: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cimetidine. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14: 679-686.(治療レベル1a)
65) McClave SA, Greene LM, Snider HL, et al. Comparison of the safety of early enteral vs parenteral nutrition in mild acute pancreatitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997; 21: 14-20.(治療レベル2b)
66) Kalfarentzos F, Kehagias J, Mead N, et al. Enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized prospective trial. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 1665-1669.(治療レベル2b)
67) Windsor AC, Kanwar S, Li AG, et al. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis. Gut 1998; 42: 431-435.(治療レベル2b)
68) Abou-Assi S, Craig K, O'Keefe SJ. Hypocaloric jejunal feeding is better than total parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized comparative study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2255-2262.(治療レベル1b)
69) Olah A, Pardavi G, Belagyi T, et al. Early nasojejunal feeding in acute pancreatitis is associated with a lower complication rate. Nutrition 2002; 18: 259-262.(治療レベル2b)
70) Gupta R, Patel K, Calder PC, et al. A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of total enteral and total parenteral nutritional support on metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative markers in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis(APACHE II>or =6). Pancreatology 2003; 3: 406-413.(治療レベル2b)
71) Petrov MS, Kukosh MV, Emelyanov NV. A randomized controlled trial of enteral versus parenteral feeding in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis shows a significant reduction in mortality and in infected pancreatic complications with total enteral nutrition. Dig Surg 2006; 23(5-6): 336-344.(治療レベル1b)
72) Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Meta-analysis of parenteral nutrition versus enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. BMJ 2004; 328: 1407-1412.(治療レベル1a)
73) Al-Omran M, Groof A, Wilke D. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition for acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; CD002837.(治療レベル1a)
74) Powell JJ, Murchison JT, Fearon KC, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of early enteral nutrition on markers of the inflammatory response in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 1375-1381.(治療レベル2b)
75) Sax HC, Warner BW, Talamini MA, et al. Early total parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: lack of beneficial effects. Am J Surg 1987; 153: 117-124.(治療レベル1a)
76) Lobo DN, Memon MA, Allison SP, et al. Evolution of nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 695-707.(治療レベル1a)
77) 真弓俊彦, 竹澤純. 急性膵炎における栄養療法とその役割. 日本臨床2004; 62: 2079-2085.(治療レベル1a)
78) 竹山宜典, 大槻眞, 木原康之, 他. 重症急性膵炎における消化管内除菌, 経腸栄養の方法と開始時期の検討と治療指針の作成. 厚生労働科学研究費補助金難治性疾患克服研究事業難治性膵疾患に関する調査研究, 平成17年度総括・分担研究報告書2006; 50-53.(治療レベル4)
79) Eatock FC, Chong P, Menezes N, et al. A randomized study of early nasogastric versus nasojejunal feeding in severe acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 432-439.(治療レベル1b)
80) Petrov MS, Correia MI, Windsor JA. Nasogastric tube feeding in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. A systematic review of the literature to determine safety and tolerance. JOP 2008; 9(4): 440-448.(治療レベル1b)
81) Olah A, Belagyi T, Issekutz A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of specific lactobacillus and fibre supplement to early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 1103-1107.(治療レベル2b)
82) Fuentes-Orozco C, Cervantes-Guevara G, Mucino-Hernández I. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition decreases infectious morbidity rate in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2008; 32(4): 403-411.(治療レベル1b)
83) Wang X, Li W, Li N, Li J. Omega-3 fatty acids-supplemented parenteral nutrition decreases hyperinflammatory response and attenuates systemic disease sequelae in severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized and controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2008; 32(3): 236-241.(治療レベル1b)
84) Pearce CB, Sadek SA, Walters AM. A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial to study the effects of an enteral feed supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and omega-3 fatty acid in predicted acute severe pancreatitis. JOP 2006; 7(4): 361-371.(治療レベル1b)
85) Oláh A, Belágyi T, Pótó L. Synbiotic control of inflammation and infection in severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, double blind study. Hepatogastroenterology 2007; 54(74): 590-594.(治療レベル1b)
86) Petrov MS, Atduev VA, Zagainov VE. Advanced enteral therapy in acute pancreatitis: is there a room for immunonutrition? A meta-analysis. Int J Surg 2008; 6(2): 119-124. Epub 2008 Jan 25.(治療レベル1a)
87) Besselink MG, van Santvoort HC, Buskens E. Probiotic prophylaxis in predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 371(9613): 651-659. Epub 2008 Feb 14.(治療レベル1b)
88) Levy P, Heresbach D, Pariente EA, et al. Frequency and risk factors of recurrent pain during refeeding in patients with acute pancreatitis: A multivariate multicentre prospective study of 116 patients. Gut 1997; 40: 262-266.(治療レベル2b)
89) Chebli JM, Gaburri PD, De Souza AF, et al. Oral refeeding in patients with mild acute pancreatitis: Prevalence and risk factors of relapsing abdominal pain. J Gastroenteol Hepatol 2005; 20: 1385-1389.(治療レベル2b)
   
6~8. 選択的消化管除菌・腹腔洗浄・腹膜灌流・血液浄化療法
90) Luiten EJ, Hop WC, Endtz HP, et al. Prognostic importance of gram-negative intestinal colonization preceding pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. Results of a controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination. Intensive Care Med 1998; 24: 438-445.(病態レベル3b)
91) 竹山宜典. 重症急性膵炎における消化管内除菌, 経腸栄養の方法と開始時期の検討と治療指針の作成. 難治性膵疾患に関する調査研究, 平成17年度総括・分担研究報告書2006; 50-53.(治療レベル4)
92) Silvestri L, van Saene HKF, Casarin A, et al. Impact of selective decontamination of the digestive tract on carriage and infection due to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Anaesth Intensive Care 2008; 36: 324-338.(治療レベル1a)
93) Luiten EJ, Hop WC, Lange JF, et al. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1995; 222: 57-65.(治療レベル1b)
94) Stone HH, Fabian TC. Peritoneal dialysis in the treatment of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1980; 150: 878-882.(治療レベル1b)
95) Ranson JH, Berman RS. Long peritoneal lavage decreases pancreatic sepsis in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1990; 211: 708-716.(治療レベル1b)
96) Mayer AD, McMahon MJ. Continuous clinical trial of peritoneal lavage for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 399-404.(治療レベル1b)
97) Ihse I, Evander A, Gustafson I, et al. Influence of peritoneal lavage on objective prognostic signs in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg 1986; 204: 122-127.(治療レベル1b)
98) Cooper MJ Williamson RC, Pollock AV. The role of peritoneal lavage in the prediction and treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1982; 64: 422-427.(治療レベル1b)
99) Kivilaakso E, Lempinen M, Makelainen A, et al. Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavation for acute fulminant pancreatitis. A randomized prospective study. Ann Surg 1984; 199: 426-431.(治療レベル1b)
100) Teerenhovi O, Nordaback I, Eskola J. High volume lesser sac lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1989; 76: 370-373.(治療レベル1b)
101) Schroder T, Saaino V, Kivisaari L. et al. Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 1991; 214: 663-666.(治療レベル1b)
102) Platell C, Cooper D, Hall JC. Acute pancreatitis: Effect of somatostatin analogs and peritoneal lavage. A meta-analysis of peritoneal lavage for acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 689-693.(治療レベル1a-)
103) Oda S, Hirasawa H, Shiga H, et al. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with continuous hemodiafiltration using a polymethyl methacrylate membrane hemofilter. Ther Apher 2005; 9: 335-361.(治療レベル4)
104) 平澤博之, 北村伸哉, 上野博一. 重症急性膵炎におけるhumoral mediator からみた持続的血液濾過透析(CHDF)の有効性に関する検討. 小川道雄監. 厚生省特定疾患対策事業重症急性膵炎の救命率を改善するための研究班, 平成11 年度研究報告書. 2000; 162-170.(治療レベル4)
105) 松野正紀, 小川道雄, 渡辺伸一郎, 他. 重症急性膵炎に対する血液浄化法の施行状況, 効果についての調査. 厚生省特定疾患消化器系疾患調査研究班難治性膵疾患分科会, 平成10年度研究報告書. 2000; 36-41.(治療レベル4)
106) Jiang K, Chen XZ, Xia Q, et al. Early veno-venous hemofiltration for severe acute pancreatitis: A systematic review. Chin J Evid-Based Med 2007; 7: 121-134.(治療レベル1a-)
107) Jiang K, Chen XZ, Xia Q, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of early veno-venous hemofiltration for severe acute pancreatitis in China. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 28: 1872-1877.(治療レベル1a-)
108) Kyriakidis AV, Karydakis P, Neofytou N, et al. Plasmapheresis in the management of acute severe hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. Pancreatology 2005; 5: 201-204.(治療レベル4)
109) Chen JH, Yeh JH, Lai HW, et al. Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 2272-2274.(治療レベル4)
   
9. 蛋白分解酵素阻害薬・抗菌薬膵局所動注療法
110) 角川陽一郎, 武田和憲, 砂村眞琴, 他. 十二指腸盲管法による実験的急性膵炎に対する蛋白分解酵素阻害剤持続動注療法の効果. 日消誌1990; 87: 1444-1450.
111) Hayashi J, Kawarada Y, Isaji S, et al. Therapeutic effects of continuous intraarterial antibiotic infusion in preventing pancreatic infection in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas 1996; 13: 184-192.
112) Mikami Y, Takeda K, Matsuda K, et al. Rat experimental model of continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and its effects on severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 2005; 30: 248-253.
113) Takeda K, Matsuno S, Sunamura M, et al. Continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and antibiotics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg 1996; 171: 394-398.(治療レベル3b)
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